Pharmacokinetics (PK)

    • Related to the movement of drug into, through, and out of the body – the time course of its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)
    • PK is dependent of individual-related factors as well as on the drug’s chemical properties, such as renal function, genetic background, sex, age, etc

Pharmacodynamics (PD)

  • The study of the biochemical, physiologic, and molecular effects of drugs on the body
  • Usually it involves receptor binding (as well as receptor sensitivity), post receptor effects, and chemical interactions
  • PD may be altered by disorders or diseases, age, or the presence of other drugs
  • Some of the disorders may include malnutrition, genetic mutations or insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus


  • The exposure-response relationship (PK/PD) is crucial to the development and approval of every drug
  • PK/PD analyses are important for the understanding of how drugs behave in the body and how the body reacts to drugs
  • Additionally, they help the design of better clinical studies

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