In vitro models of injury

  • Elevated glucose concentration (model of diabetic retinopathy)
  • Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure (EHP) (model of glaucoma)
  • Excitotoxicity with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or glutamate (model of retinal neurodegeneration)
  • Exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (inflammatory model)
  • Endothelial cells exposed to cytokines (breakdown of blood-retinal barrier model)


In vitro models

  • Rat retinal (mixed; ganglion; microglial) cell cultures
  • Mouse retinal Muller cell cultures
  • Bovine retinal endotelial cell cultures
  • Porcine retinal pigment epitelial cell cultures
  • Organotypic retinal cultures (mouse, rat and human)
  • Endothelial cell line (HUVEC, human)
  • Retinal Muller cell line (MIO-M1, human)
  • Microglial cell line (BV-2, murine)

In vitro assays

  • Cell viability
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • Production of nitric oxide (NO)
  • Cell proliferation
  • Cell migration
  • Phagocytosis
  • Angiogenesis
  • Permeability
  • Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium

In vivo models of disease

  • Retinal injury (Transient retinal ischemia-reperfusion; excitotoxicity-induced retinal degeneration; ocular inflammation model)
  • Glaucoma
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Age-related macular degeneration


In vivo assays

  • Intraocular pressure measurement
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Full-field electroretinography
  • Pattern electroretinography
  • Scotopic threshold response
  • Visual-evoked potentials
  • Optomotor response
  • Fluorescein angiography
  • Laboratory techniques
  • RNA and DNA isolation
  • Real-time quantitative PCR
  • Western blotting
  • Cell transfection
  • Gene expression silencing
  • Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry
  • Anterograde and retrograde axonal transport
  • Fluorescence and confocal microscopy

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